Wireless Sensor Network is an emerging area that shows great future prospects. Today such networks are used in many industrial and consumer applications, such as military, industrial process, monitoring health and in automated and smart homes. So far, the researchers have only focused on making WSNs useful, feasible, and less emphasis was placed on security. The sensors used are susceptible to different types of attacks, denial of service, physical tampering. In hostile scenarios, it is very important to protect WSNs from malicious attacks. This is the reason we need better security against these challenges, threats and issues in WSN. The intent of this paper is to shed light on the security related issues and challenges in wireless sensor networks investigated by researchers in recent years and that shed light on future directions for WSN security.
In Lacan’s seminars, he discussed the artists Cézanne, Holbein and Velasquez. In each case the fil rouge which connected Lacan’s thought was the idea of shifts in perspective leading to ways in which the artist had produced a work that evoked the experience of the “gaze”. In Seminar XIII, in discussing Velasquez’ Las Meninas, Lacan identifies the “picture within the picture” which we see Velasquez working on, as the Vorstellungsrepräsentanz , the representative of the representation. Lacan very clearly distinguished representation as being on the side of signification, whereas the “representative of representation” as being on the side of the signifier. In Las Meninas the “picture in the picture” is painted by Velasquez at the conjunction of two perspectives which are impossible in one space. Lacan said the “picture in the picture” as the “representative of representation” casts uncertainty on other “representations” in the painting. These other “objects” take on this disturbance of perspective in a domino effect, which allows many elements of the painting to take on this “representative of the representation” effect. This destabilizing of the visual space of the painting allows for displacements and condensations of images in the painting. An endless series of questions arise about the relations between the elements in the painting. People have talked about this painting for 350 years! What grounds the artist’s ability to do this is a masterful knowledge of his craft and an appreciation of a beyond of representation. With Las Meninas, it is Velasquez’ ability to construct an impossible melding of perspectives that keep the viewer is suspense.
When serious artists use all of their knowledge as artists to attempt to render something beyond representation, they are structurally placing themselves in the position of evoking the gaze for their audience. They do not transmit their knowledge directly to the audience. Velasquez used his knowledge from the arts of perspective and from other domains of artistic technique. This is similar to the analyst who must have knowledge of many kinds which are transmitted to him in the learning of his craft. But he cannot use this knowledge directly, it only sustains his attempt to stay in the position of “objet petit a”. Similarly the artist cannot simply tell you what he means or transmit his knowledge directly.
An example of this in cinema is the ending of the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey by which was written and directed by Stanley Kubrick.
The trip through the wormhole takes our protagonist to a particularly ambiguous environment, adorned with luxurious furnishings but maintaining a clinical or rather detached, oddly misunderstood and superficial facsimile of luxury. Here Dave runs through his life, in fast forward until he dies and is reborn in the form of the ‘Star Child’. The cuts we see here have Dave observing himself in the third person, then we switch over to the other Dave and follow him. This device is an ingenious way that Kubrick elegantly side steps the use of the montage technique, simultaneously progressing time without resorting to fades, whilst furthering the artificiality of the environment (with) a deliberate manipulation of time.
In order to understand what’s brought us to this point it’s now necessary to consider the monolith. It’s arrival at the dawn of man spurred the next step in human development, man begins to use tools, and rapidly the balance of power shifts in his favour, even within his species. The famous moment of the bone being thrown into the air and the jump cut to the spaceship is making a parallel between the two tools, the bone and the spaceship, and this illustrates a defining moment on evolution where man begins to use tools, the rudimentary bludgeon to begin with through to the sophisticated space ship. The point at which the aliens have interacted with humans again coincides with the point that artificial intelligence, in the form of HAL, has arrived. HAL is the tool that becomes a threat to humanity, it’s sophistication approaching and reflecting, possibly fully achieving, the emotional capabilities and immaturities of humans, becoming sophisticated to the point where it almost becomes more human than the rather unemotional creators. As Dave’s journey approaches its end we see him observing the final stage of life as we know it, that of death. Once again the transition is seamless as we move into the dying moments of the current stage of human existence, an existence that must end to make way for the next step. The Monolith reappears again at the time of Dave’s impending death, when he dies the Star Child is born, the transcendent being that exists literally and in every way above humanity. The monolith then returns Dave back to Earth. The cycle of his trip and the cycle of the films arc is completed as we see the beginning of a new phase of humanity again.
Jacques Lacan exemplified the presence, the encounter with the gaze with Hans Holbein’s painting “The Ambassadors”. The 16th century interior in which the two characters are represented is violently disrupted by a figure in the middle, which at a first sight resembles nothing and puzzles the viewer. The figure of the skull floating randomly between the painting’s borders annihilates everything the painting otherwise depicts. All the symbols of power, arts and science are disavowed by the view of the skull, which stresses the futility of everything in the symbolic order. I am bringing this 16th century painting into discussion because I find the skull’s intrusion, given as an example of the power of the gaze by Lacan himself, similar to the presence of Kubrick’s black monolith in the middle of the white neoclassical room, as well as in the African Savannah. This element’s presence is uncanny. The monolith is there but viewed from a rational perspective, shaped by the rules of the symbolic world, it is not supposed to be there. The image is complete without it and its presence only bothers, stirs and makes the viewer uncomfortable, exactly as the skull in Holbein’s painting. But in contrast to the skull, the monolith has a neutral shape, cannot be read as an imagistic symbol for anything. It is a black block with no traces of features to trigger any kind of connotative meaning, in the middle of an image which would make perfect sense otherwise. Unlike the skull which is immediately read as a symbol of death, as a memento mori, the monolith stands for nothing but itself. One cannot pinpoint its nature or its purpose, its beginning or its end, the only fact that one can know is that the monolith exists, it is real and it is present. Furthermore, it is literally a foreign body, an extraterrestrial entity.
In what concerns the last apparition of the monolith, it seems to force itself in the symbolic structure. The visual contrast between the white room and the black entity enforces the differences in the nature of the two. Bowman, the human subject is “trapped” in the room, he cannot escape the influence of the monolith. His behaviour does not change, but he involves in a silent dialogue with the monolith, a dialogue which is beyond words, which has no use or need for language. It is so powerful that defies language, and with it defies the worldly order and structure. The dialogue between the monolith and the character is out of reach for the spectator, but, nevertheless, the monolith’s power, the gaze, transcends the screen and proposes a different dialogue to every eyes which are set on it, because one cannot avoid the gaze.
Maybe the final encounter with the monolith is not meant to be deciphered like one would crack down a code, like it would be a conglomeration of symbols which read in the correct order and by the right pattern reflect the great truth. Maybe it is supposed to be felt, and it is itself an encounter with the great truth, with the big Other, an encounter with no need for words, or symbols, or meanings. Maybe it is so puzzling because of our need for structure, for meaning and because of our incapacity to accept the existence of non-sense and only of senses. It might just be a moment of freedom for the character and for the spectators and the movie closes to an end with the Star Childs gaze at the spectator. And therefore, the monolith is the “representative of the representation”. A monolith within a monolith. A fantasy.
I recently had to work on the J2ME platform for a course at my university. It is an old technology and does not have many recent articles about using or installing J2ME on Linux. J2ME SDK has had no support for Linux for a long time. The SDK 3.x only has support for Mac and Windows. The last version available was by Sun which is called the Sun Java Wireless Toolkit 2.5.2. This comes bundled with NetBeans 7.2 version. But the emulator that comes with it does not seem to work. Although, another emulator availble on sourceforge called MicroEmulator is able to run the JAR files built using NetBeans for the Wireless Toolkit Platform.
Install NetBeans 7.2 and make sure to use JDK 7 instead of JDK 8 during the installation. If you forgot to do so, you can edit the conf file in the etc folder.
After installing NetBeans 7.2, you should create a new J2ME Mobile Application Project, check the CLDC 1.1 and MIDP 2.0
Press build to test if the project is built or not
If the project builds successfully, great. Otherwise, there could be two problems. Run the Sun Java Wireless Toolkit 2.5.2 shell script and install it and add it as a Platform in NetBeans and try creating a new project with this platform instead. If it says that some libraries such as libXt.so are are missing in the preverify step, you need to install these (i686 versions) using your package manager.
The emulator bundled with NetBeans will not work so we need to use MicroEmulator. For this you can extract the zip file somewhere and run the jar file using `java -jar microemulator.jar`. For making your life easier, you can modify your ANT build-impl.xml file to run the emulator after building the JAR file of your J2ME project. Here is the code which you can modify according to where you extracted microemulator:
You can get a free BNC account on EliteBNC. It runs ZNC which you can run yourself if you have a spare VPS. All you need to do is login on FreeNode (you can use their webchat if you don’t have a client handy) and join #EliteBNC channel and issue the following command command: !request <username> freenode <your email id> and you will get the settings in your email if your request is approved.